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Thursday, 18 July 2024
history of judo

In February of 1882 Kano with several of his disciples opened his own school in the temple Eysedzi. This was the world-famous Kodokan now, "Institute for the Study of the flexible way", which is then placed in four rooms. The largest - an area 4hb m - taken under the dojo. In the first year of school it was only nine students. For starters, the teacher did not have the equipment, even the small room. Cano received the necessary amount of translation from English book "A Treatise on Ethics", made by order of the Ministry of Education.

Opening date is identified with the Kodokan judo birthday - a distinctive educational system of Japanese youth, Jigoro Kano created on the basis of ancient jujutsu. Kano has long been in love with Jiu-Jitsu, and believed that it should be saved as a cultural treasure of Japan; however, he was convinced, and that jujutsu should be adapted to modern conditions. He felt that the fundamental principles of ju-jitsu should be organized in the form of Kodokan Judo, the discipline of mind and body, raising the wisdom and virtuous life. Comparing jujutsu with Hee-nayanoi, "small chariot" with a limited scope, he likened the Kodokan Judo Mahayana "," Greater Vehicle ", covering both the individual and society as a whole." If the work of a human being does not lead to good society - said Cano, - this man's life is in vain. "" I started with what became systematize the best techniques of jiu-jitsu. I added to them also own and gave them a different meaning. So a new system that combines the spiritual and physical beginning. "His new struggle Jigoro Kano named judo." Ju "means soft, modest," to "- the path demeanor, point of view or mind. Thus, judo - soft, modest demeanor, reflecting the attitude of judo to the opponent and to life. Dojo adjacent to the main hall of the temple, where the walls were hung wooden plaques dedicated to the memory of the dead. Often, when the fight took place too intense shaking of the floor caused tapping plates. in the evening, it was like a dance of mysterious spirits. In this unusual situation sounds of falling plates, and sometimes crack broken floorboards, which could not withstand the onslaught of falling bodies, resulted in the rare thrill of parishioners. After training himself mentor Cano crawl under the floor, tying head with a towel to protect themselves from a thick web, strengthened beams and replacing broken floorboards. The next day everything was repeated.


Founding the "Kodokan" Jigoro Kano Judo began by creating a system of education rights. He considered judo primarily as a means of education and not as a form of entertainment.

"Judo - is the way to more efficient use of mind and body. The essence of judo is to learn the art attack and defend through hard training, tempering body and nurturing the will "- so wrote Jigoro Kano, expressing the main direction of its educational system.

Jigoro Kano found that all flow into the "Kodokan", should give a solemn oath, consisting of the following items:

1. Once I decided to devote himself to judo, do not give up employment without good reason.

2. By their conduct, I promise not to demean the dignity "Dojo" (judo hall).

3. I never betray the secrets of the school to the uninitiated, and only in extreme cases will take lessons anywhere else.

4. I promise not to give lessons without permission of my teacher.

5. By throughout my life to respect the rules "Kodokan", now as a student and later as a teacher, if I told them I will.

Not immediately Jigoro Kano came to the basic principles of their system. The famous formula Jigoro Kano described in "Kodokan":

"Suppose that the power of one person is measured in units. My partner, say, a force equal to 10 units. I myself much smaller and weaker than him, has the power equal to 7 units. If it will put pressure on me with his strength, then, of course, I concede or even drop. But if I with the same force with which he comes away from his grip, that is to maneuver, he would have to bend over to my side and thus lose his balance. In this new position, it will be too weak. Of course, the power of his stay with him, but to use it at this point he can not. He lost his footing. And now he has left out of 10 units of force only 3. I just lost my balance, and retain all of its 7 units of power. At some point, I become stronger than his opponent, and here's what I have to beat him, without spending a lot of effort. "

The importance of Jigoro Kano gave maximize results. This means that the aim of judo is to achieve the best results using a minimum of effort. He said:

"The maximum result - the foundation on which stands the whole building judo. Moreover, this principle can be fully utilized in the system of physical education. It can also be used for the development of mental abilities in the classroom, as well as in the education and character formation. You can achieve that this principle will have an impact on the manner of man, the way he dresses, lives on his behavior in society and attitude towards others. In short, this principle may be the art of living. "

In 1884, Kano was able to build a dojo more (although its size is still lacking only twelve mats) and establish regular days of open competition. By this time, gradually formed a classification system - originally there were three primary level (kyu) and three levels for masters (dan). Dzёdziro Tomita (1865-1937) and Shiro Saigo (1866- 1922) became the first coach, award-rank sёdan.V mass consciousness there is a misconception that the coveted black belt is the most prestigious. In fact, the higher the skill (largely -Knowledge) noted a red belt. Although he Jigoro Kano at the end of life again put on a white belt, underscoring the depth and the immensity of the secrets he established the same martial art. So far in Europe, use the following color scheme, which allows to determine the skill level of judo, looking at his belt Initially are six degrees of pupils:

6 kyu - white belt
5 kyu - yellow belt
4 kyu belt -oranzhevy
3 kyu - Green Belt
2 kyu - blue belt
 I Kyu - Brown Belt
Followed by 10 degrees workshops - Dan holders first 5 dan black belt wear, which differ in the number of transverse white stripes at the end of the belt, 6-8 dan - red and white belt, 9-10 dan - red belt.

Around the same time, Kano introduced kan-geiko "training in cold weather," - tridtsatidnevku special winter training from four to seven hours utra.K 1885 the number wishing to study at it increased to fifty-four people; approached by even a few foreigners. His first foreign students were, apparently, two brothers Eastlake from the United States (they did not last long, but in 1899 it was replaced by Professor Ladd of Princeton University, who spent ten months in Kodokan serious training). In 1866, Kano moved again, this time in Fujimi-cho, and there he was able to build a beautiful building for forty mats - in the year he enrolled ninety-nine students. In the dojo at Fujimi-cho students with levels given for the first time began to wear black belts as a sign of their status. Kodokan masters who have reached the level of "black belt", were required to study traditional methods of first aid for injuries. Ways these have little to do with European medicine. They are entirely based on the theory of acupuncture, or rather, acupressure, partly borrowed from the continent mentors old school jujutsu.

In Japan, various methods of resuscitation of a person in a state of shock, were called "Kappo" - from the word "katsu" ("animate") and "ho" ("way"). In the past, methods Kappo kept a closely guarded secret. It is natural that people get an idea about the most sensitive points of the body, could use their knowledge not only to cure. Mastering Kappo always parallel with the development of aggressive Sapp (defeat vulnerabilities affecting the vital centers), now half-forgotten and in wrestling, of course, does not apply. This explains the requirement Kano attach to the CVR only high-class athletes who achieved notable success in the field of spiritual perfection.

Judo as a physical education

The goal of physical education, said Cano, is to make the body a "strong, useful and healthy." Further, in the process of physical education, all muscles of the body should develop symmetrically. Regrettably, according to Kano that most sports usually develop only certain muscle groups and neglect others. The result is a physical imbalance. Kano developed for dealing with judo specific set of warm-up exercises to develop all muscles of the body. In addition, regular practice both kata and randori. Kata, which is necessary to fulfill both the right and left-handed and carry the basics of attack and defense. On the other hand, is a randori training in freestyle. In both cases, all movements must be performed according to the principle seyrёku zen-e - "the most efficient use of force."

Judo as a sport

Randori is the basis of competition in judo, sports element of Kano. Lethal methods are prohibited in it, and the opponents are trying to win a clear victory thanks to perfect technique, the most efficient use of energy and good sense of time. Randori is thus check the progress in the development of human art and allows the student to assess how well it is able to operate in comparison with others. Noting the importance of randori, Cano emphasizes that competition is only part of the Kodokan Judo and its importance should not be overestimated.

Judo as an ethical training

Education Kodokan Judo, according to Kano, helps a person become more alert, confident, determined and focused. Even more significantly, the Kodokan Judo was seen as a means of teaching the use of other important principles Kano - Zita keei, "mutual aid and cooperation." As applied to social life, the principles of Kodokan Judo - diligence, flexibility, efficiency, good manners and ethical behavior - is a huge boon for everyone.
In his lectures Cano also identified five principles of judo in everyday life:
1. Carefully observe themselves and the circumstances of his own life, carefully observe the others, carefully observe all the others.
2. Vladey initiative in any endeavor.
3. comprehend fully, act decisively.
4. Know when to stop.

5. Stick to the middle between joy and depression, exhaustion and laziness, cowardice and reckless bravado.

V1906 year Kodokan expands again; This time he moved to the dojo to two hundred and seven mats in the area of Shimo-Tomisaka-cho. Around the same time the standard becomes judo-gi (uniform judo) in the form in which we know it today (especially pants were often very short, and jackets were sewed on a variety of samples). In 1908, the Japanese parliament passed a law on compulsory education ken-up or judo in secondary schools.

  Kodokan program, which is now located on the street Kosugi near Beeches Nye and is a seven-storey building with the world's biggest dojo (1000 sq ft), with five small and medium-sized rooms, which can simultaneously engage several hundred people, with its own research research institute, and includes several sets of fighting techniques and self-defense for women and men. The theory distinguishes 10 ways to attack (Kobo-ichi), when the enemy:

1) is going to step forward;

2) intends to step back;

3) tries to move left or right;

4) intends <enter reception> that he wants to spend;

5) tense and rigidly fixed;

6) moves randomly and quickly, movement ahead of thought;

7) began implementation of admission;

8) attempted to apply the method, but he did not succeed, or when he changed his mind;

9) realizing the impossibility of reception, trying to get back to its original position;

10) back to its original position.

Many shots are based on the involuntary reaction thrown consisting in uncoordinated movement. It should be emphasized that in this art can achieve a high technical level, makes it possible to fall without any consequences. There are 3 sections judo techniques - nage-waza - throwing techniques, katame-waza - machinery retention, painful holds and chokes on the ground and atemi-waza - machinery beats vulnerable points of the human body, as for the individual methods, we can say that their innumerable. These types of equipment are processed in the form of randori - educational labor and kata - fixed paired forms, and individual techniques are very complex action.

If we analyze and synthesize all these techniques are divided into many species and have a lot of options, we realize that all of them use common basic action (kihon dosa). As such bases generally indicate:

1) Ceesay (position, posture) and kumikata (classical technique capture);

2) Xingtai (movement forward and back) and Tai Sabaki (turns, reversals);

3) Thi-Qar, but convergence (methods is-use of force);

4) kuzushi (removal from the balance);

5) zu-kuri (preparation of admission) and Kake (receptions);

6) ukemi (lanyard techniques), and others.

In any sport, emphasizes the importance of the basics.

To date, the classical technique of Kodokan Judo includes 67 receptions 5 techniques struggle in the rack:

1 technique throws hands (15)

2 throwing techniques housing (11)

3 feet throwing techniques (21)

4 throwing techniques with advanced attacker to fall back (5)

5 throwing techniques with pre-fall on the attacking side (15)

3 and 19 receptions Floor techniques:

1 appliances deductions (7)

2 Equipment strangling techniques (12)

3 appliances painful receptions (10)